Analysis finds species diversity driven by tectonics and climate

first_imgHeat maps for the six selected temporal units, using an equal-area grid of 100-km cell size in Behrmann projection. Colors are based on the ordinary Kriging algorithm with 100-km cell size and 200-km interpolation radius performed on grid-specific species richness. Coloration is equal in all maps, scaled to the maximum grid richness of 218 species (Late Miocene, Lake Pannon). Credit: PNAS 2015 ; published ahead of print August 24, 2015, doi:10.1073/pnas.1503992112 Explore further Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Land animals proliferate faster than aquatic counterparts The researchers, from the Natural History Museum of Vienna, offer examples of such geodynamics-driven evolution as the development of the Indian monsoon, which was triggered by the collision of the Indian subcontinent with Eurasia causing the uplift of the Himalayas. This paleogeographic-climatic event over 20 million years ago now profoundly affects half of the world’s population. The paper regards hotspots as areas of species richness and their evolution over geologic time. The initiation and demise of continental basins leads to the development and persistence of freshwater and brackish environments, and strongly influences the dispersal, radiation and evolution of marine and nonmarine life. The paper attempts to track the geologic, climatic and physiographic parameters through an examination and regression analysis of marine species diversity in the fossil record.Early Miocene: Around 21 million years ago, there were only three known, fairly small hotspots of species richness. The authors find an increase in diversity that coincides with the rising temperatures after the comparatively cool Oligocene.Middle Miocene: During this period, species richness in Europe increased to a maximum—this occurred at what climatologists refer to as the Middle Miocene Climate Optimum. The changes in speciation were driven by the rise and dissipation of freshwater lake basins; although most declined, a new hotspot on the Balkan Peninsula resulted from the folding of the Dinaride Mountains, accommodating new lakes and species. After the decline, species richness rebounded about 5 million years ago.Late Miocene: All previous European hotspots disappeared, and a very large new one emerged in the Pannonian Basin. A peak in diversity was followed by another major Miocene turnover, with a rise in rates of extinction.Pliocene: The total number of species reached a temporary maximum; this is followed by the extinction of more than 300 species that corresponded with a mid-Pliocene warm period.Pleistocene: Global and regional cooling during this period resulted in a decline in species richness. A number of major long-lived lakes declined, along with the maximum number of species per lake.Recent: The Ice Ages brought glaciation of much of Northern Europe and the Alpine region, and many major lakes and their faunas vanished. Most of the existing lakes emerged after the Last Glacial Maximum, along with their faunas.The researchers demonstrate that the shifts of species richness hotspots throughout time are linked to the development of geologic basins that accommodate long-lived freshwater and brackish environments. They write that “the availability of a persisting, stable geologic basin providing continual freshwater or brackish environments is a prerequisite for hotspot evolution for aquatic gastropods… The rise and demise of species richness hotspots throughout time is tightly related to regional and tectonic phases.” © 2015 Phys.orgcenter_img (—Biology often uses the word “hotspot” to characterize a region that gives rise to an abundance of species over a particular time period. A new paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences suggests that the development of continental aquatic species hotspots is tightly linked to the climatic and geodynamic history of the European continent. More information: “Tectonics, climate, and the rise and demise of continental aquatic species richness hotspots.” PNAS 2015 ; published ahead of print August 24, 2015, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1503992112AbstractContinental aquatic species richness hotspots are unevenly distributed across the planet. In present-day Europe, only two centers of biodiversity exist (Lake Ohrid on the Balkans and the Caspian Sea). During the Neogene, a wide variety of hotspots developed in a series of long-lived lakes. The mechanisms underlying the presence of richness hotspots in different geological periods have not been properly examined thus far. Based on Miocene to Recent gastropod distributions, we show that the existence and evolution of such hotspots in inland-water systems are tightly linked to the geodynamic history of the European continent. Both past and present hotspots are related to the formation and persistence of long-lived lake systems in geological basins or to isolation of existing inland basins and embayments from the marine realm. The faunal evolution within hotspots highly depends on warm climates and surface area. During the Quaternary icehouse climate and extensive glaciations, limnic biodiversity sustained a severe decline across the continent and most former hotspots disappeared. The Recent gastropod distribution is mainly a geologically young pattern formed after the Last Glacial Maximum (19 ky) and subsequent formation of postglacial lakes. The major hotspots today are related to long-lived lakes in preglacially formed, permanently subsiding geological basins. Citation: Analysis finds species diversity driven by tectonics and climate (2015, September 1) retrieved 18 August 2019 from This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Strongerthanbinary correlations experimentally demonstrated for the first time

first_imgTwo possible explanations for the quantum measurement process: (a) A binary measurement that generates the final outcome in two steps (first ruling out one of the three outcomes, then selecting between the two remaining outcomes), or (b) a ternary measurement that selects among all three outcomes at once. Credit: Hu et al. ©2018 American Physical Society Journal information: Physical Review Letters Explore further Illustration of the experimental setup for demonstrating ternary correlations. Credit: Hu et al. ©2018 American Physical Society Citation: Stronger-than-binary correlations experimentally demonstrated for the first time (2018, May 21) retrieved 18 August 2019 from If the quantum measurement process were binary, then measurements could be described as a two-step process in which first one of the three possible measurement outcomes is ruled out by a classical mechanism, and then a quantum binary measurement selects between the two remaining outcomes. In this binary measurement process, the maximum correlation between two entangled objects cannot exceed a certain value.In their experiments, the researchers demonstrated that the strength of the correlations between the entangled qutrits exceed this maximum value. To do this, they performed a Bell-type experiment in which they showed that the observed correlations violate the maximum inequality for nonsignalling binary correlations with a very high statistical significance, corresponding to 9.3 standard deviations. The results imply that the measurement process in quantum theory cannot be explained by the two-step process with binary measurements. Instead, the measurement process here is genuinely ternary, where the quantum ternary measurement selects between all three of the possible states at once.Overall, the researchers explain that the observations of stronger-than-binary correlations don’t contradict previous experimental evidence of binary correlations, but add new possibilities for how the quantum measurement process works at the most fundamental level.”Now that we have established the theoretical tools and the experimental methods to understand and create ternary correlations, we aim to proceed in two directions,” Kleinmann said. “First, we hope for technological applications (for example, in randomness extraction) and second, we are now using our results as a new basis for a deeper understanding of quantum theory.” For the first time, physicists have experimentally demonstrated ternary—rather than binary—quantum correlations between entangled objects. The results show that the quantum measurement process cannot be described as a binary process (having two possible outcomes), but rather stronger-than-binary ternary measurements (which have three possible outcomes) should be considered in order to fully understand how the quantum measurement process works.center_img More information: More information: Xiao-Min Hu et al. “Observation of Stronger-than-Binary Correlations with Entangled Photonic Qutrits.” Physical Review Letters. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.180402 , Also at arXiv:1712.06557 [quant-ph] © 2018 The physicists, Xiao-Min Hu and coauthors from China, Germany, Spain, and Hungary, have published a paper on the stronger-than-binary correlations in a recent issue of Physical Review Letters.”We discovered and experimentally verified the existence of genuine ternary measurements,” coauthor Matthias Kleinmann at the University of Siegen in Siegen, Germany, and the University of the Basque Country in Bilbao, Spain, told “The experimental conclusions are independent of any underlying theory (here: quantum theory) and establish that ternary measurements are a generic feature of nature.”Before now, stronger-than-binary correlations have been theoretically predicted to exist, but this is the first time that they have been experimentally observed. In their experiments, the researchers entangled two photonic qutrits, each of which has three possible states (0, 1, and 2), instead of just two (0 and 1) as for qubits. They then sent the qutrits to different laboratories where they measured the state of each qutrit, enabling them to determine the strength of the correlations between the two qutrits. New quantum probability rule offers novel perspective of wave function collapse This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

The defectfree assembly of 2D clusters with over 100 singleatom quantum systems

first_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Journal information: Physical Review Letters Researchers break record for atoms positioned individually in a trap to create defect-free arrays “Finally, we realized that the combination of these scientific developments with advanced optical technologies such as microfabrication of large-scale arrays of microlenses generates an ideal platform for the advancement of scalable quantum technologies,” Birkl said. “Central to our work is that we apply a novel experimental architecture in which we generate a 2-D pattern of optical traps for neutral atoms based on 2-D arrays of microlenses.”Using a large laser beam that illuminates many lenses, the researchers were able to generate several laser traps simultaneously. They generated up to 400 of these traps in parallel and were then able to address them individually.Their experiment had several steps. Birkl and his colleagues started by creating a cloud of rubidium atoms in a room-temperature vacuum system, using a magneto-optical trap (MOT). This allowed them to generate several million rubidium atoms at a temperature of about 100 microKelvin. Subsequently, they turned on the pattern of laser traps and transferred atoms into these traps, with a maximum of 1 atom per trap. Central part of the experimental apparatus for the arrangement of rubidium atoms in defect-free 2D target patterns. The blue laser light is used to initiate coherent quantum operations. Credit: Gerhard Birkl Explore further Citation: The defect-free assembly of 2-D clusters with over 100 single-atom quantum systems (2019, May 31) retrieved 18 August 2019 from “Our research is driven by the observation that physical sciences are right in the middle of a paradigm shift in which the application of quantum physics, i.e. quantum technologies, are becoming the leading technologies in the near future,” Gerhard Birkl, one of the researchers who carried out the study, told “A vast list of applications are already foreseeable but I am convinced that of most applications we are not even aware of.”The next step for the field of quantum science and technology is the development of experimental platforms that offer extensive scalability, multisite quantum correlations and efficient quantum error correction. Over the past century or so, researchers have carried out a substantial amount of work on single quantum systems, laying the foundations for current developments. Atomic quantum systems have played a key role in these studies, particularly neutral atoms trapped by light, as they provide well-isolated quantum systems with favorable scaling. “For the upcoming generations of quantum technologies, going to multiple quantum systems, i.e. scaling up the system size is pivotal,” Birkl said. “For that reason we gave ourselves the directive to develop a novel platform that provides highly scalable architectures for atomic quantum systems with full control of all relevant parameters for advancing state-of-the art quantum technologies.”When developing the technological basis for their experiment, Birkl and his students who were involved in the study focused on laser cooled neutral atoms with in optical traps, as these benefit from scientific breakthroughs of the past 25 years. These breakthroughs include laser cooling and trapping, Bose-Einstein condensation, the manipulation of individual quantum systems, and optical tweezers. Researchers at Technische Universität Darmstadt have recently demonstrated the defect-free assembly of versatile target patterns of up to 111 single-atom quantum systems. Their findings, outlined in a paper published in Physical Review Letters, could drive assembled-atom architectures beyond the threshold of quantum advantage, paving the way for new breakthroughs in quantum science and technology. © 2019 Science X Network “We generated patterns that are consisting of trap sites with exactly one or zero atoms,” Birkl explained. “Next, we took an image of the pattern and this allowed us to identify the occupied sites (which required no further action) and empty sites.”Once they determined which sites were occupied and which vacant, the researchers filled all empty sites; picking up a single atom out of a filled site outside the target pattern and transporting it to an empty site in the target pattern. This transport process was carried out using a single focus laser beam that could move in 2-D throughout the whole trap array.”This works like tweezers made out of light, for which reason they are referred to as ‘Optical Tweezers’ and are the invention of Dr. Arthur Ashkin who received part of the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physics for this invention,” Birkl said. “After applying the tweezers for all empty sites, we take another image of the atom distribution and determine success of the process of generating defect-free atom patterns. In case we still have empty sites, we repeat the assembly process one more time. We can do this up to 80 times in one experimental run, which is another reason for our success in generating large defect-free patterns with high probability.”In their study, the researchers operated on a large number of traps (361), placed in a square grid of 19×19, which corresponded to a substantial number of single atoms (approximately 200) and this allowed them to repeat the assembly process numerous times. All these factors ultimately assisted them in breaking the previous record for the assembly of single-atom quantum systems. “The scalability of the physical systems used is pivotal to further progress in this field,” Birkl said. “We were able to significantly increase the pattern size and the success probability of systems based on neutral atoms. No related experiment has demonstrated more than 72 qubits before, needless to say more than 100, or even 111. Our platform has the explicit prospect of being scalable even far beyond that numbers.”Quantum supremacy typically requires over 50 qubits, yet so far only a few quantum technology experiments were able to surpass this threshold. In their experiment, the researchers reached a total of 111 qubits with a clear plan of how to further exceed this number. This is evidence of the scalability of their experimental platform. “In addition, we could get into the regime of quantum supremacy with high success rates, as we demonstrated a success rate of more than 60% for a pattern with 8×8 = 64 qubits,” Birkl added. “With the duration of one experimental run of 1 second, this gives a new defect-free configurations for quantum processing in the regime of quantum supremacy every two seconds.”The study carried out by Birkl and his team could have important implications for several subfields of quantum technology research, including quantum simulation and quantum computing. The researchers are now planning to scale up their platform to 1000 quantum systems, also adding the ability to initiate two-qubit quantum gates between atoms to build a 2-D quantum processor based on Rydberg interactions. In this way, they are also hoping to implement large-scale quantum computing and quantum simulations using their experimental platform. More information: Daniel Ohl de Mello et al. Defect-Free Assembly of 2D Clusters of More Than 100 Single-Atom Quantum Systems, Physical Review Letters (2019). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.203601 Atom pattern assembly: an initial atom distribution with defects is transferred into a defect-free 100 atom target cluster via single-atom transport. Credit: Gerhard Birkllast_img read more

Another single girl in the city

first_imgA play depicting one such story of a girl will be soon staged in the Capital.Play titled, Safar is a social drama presented by Dhruv Arts and Cultural Society. It’s a story about a girl who comes from a small town to a metro city with a specific purpose. Here, unfortunately she has to share an accommodation with two me. Where unpredictable events create many comic situations in the house.As the play progresses, the story begins to unfold and reveals the purpose of the girl coming to the city, various facts, myths are confronted by different characters thus taking the story to a different level. The message of the play is as long as you live, you live under the protective eyes of the almighty. The play is scripted and directed by Pradeep Singh.When: 1 December, 4 and 7 pmWhere: Alliance Francaiselast_img

A traveler at heart

first_imgAn ensemble of 20 of Singh’s acrylic and oil on canvas, the works reflect the artists’ observations of the three years spent in Dwarka in Delhi.Says Singh, ‘In 2007, we shifted base to a suburb of Delhi, where we spent three years. It was only then that the city life started impacting the canvas of my life. I often used the rickshaw ride till the metro line while on my way to my studio back then at Triveni Kala Sangam. On the way, the beauty of the sweeping movements of the shadows, the little conversations with the rickshawallah about their migration, their daily struggle, collectively evoked in me a strong desire to express their emotions.’ The first culmination of these visions was the Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Chalchalacha series.The second series Euphoria also showcased the hustle and bustle of the city where birds were the metaphors for people. Chalat Musafir combines the experiences of both the exhibitions and brings a beautiful amalgamation of the artists’ experiences. The wistful canvasses perhaps emerge from her colorful real-life encounters.Her daily rickshaw ride seems to serve as the metaphor for her canvas which beautifully shows the rickshaw in the circle of life. There are undercurrents of urban angst, street life and familiar objects in the gender sensitive ethos of her work. The tea pot flying above the civilization perhaps shows the constant yearning of the urbane civilization to fly away from reality. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThe process of producing these oils on canvas is a tedious one. Singh initially captures images on camera for study, deconstructs using computer graphics and finally re-creates them as paintings, diligently composed in layers of oil paints that also endow the work with a distinct and subtle texture. The show will stay continued at – Gallery Artspeaks India, New Delhi from 11 January to 23 January 2014.WHEN: 27 December 2013 – 8 January, 2014, 11 pm to 8 Pm WHERE: Azad Bhawan Art Gallery, ICCR, Azad Bahwan, IP Estatelast_img read more

A taste of Bihar

first_imgBihar Industrial Area Development Authority (BIADA) and the government of Bihar is organising this event in Delhi and Dara Project’s MD, Sarabjeet Dara taken the charge of event manager of this event.The event includes the showcasing of handicraft, handloom and art that showcases the culture and heritage of Bihar. There will also be cultural programmes being staged everyday by renowned artistes from the region. The theme of ‘Tourism, tradition, art, culture and ambience of Bihar’ is expected to take over the Capital with their myriad hues. And of course as we talk about Bihar, we cannot ignore the incredible food that comes from there. The event will have stalls that will be dishing out the delectable fare for all to taste.The main attraction for the visitors include around 20 stalls of handloom and handicrafts. Bhagalpuri silk, Mithila paintings, Siki products, jute products like jewellry, Tikuli Art, Nepura silk of Nalanda and famous handloom bed sheets of Biharsharif. Head over to get a taste of Bihar right in the heart of Delhi.WHEN: 22 to 27 MarchWHERE: Dilli Haat, INAlast_img read more

4 drown in parts of Rajasthan

first_imgFour persons lost their lives in rain-related incidents in Jalore district of Rajasthan in the past 24 hours. The torrential rains have raised fear of a flood-like situation, officials said.Four bodies – two in Nainol, and one each in Data and Jaulasara villages of Jalore – have been recovered amid heavy downpour since Tuesday, said a senior district official.He added the body that was recovered from Moongtala in Sirohi on Tuesday has been identified as that of Ganga (15), while the two other married women – Faglu, and Heeraki – who drowned in the flash floods along with her are still missing. Also Read – Need to understand why law graduate’s natural choice is not legal profession: CJIMeanwhile, traffic has been halted on the Mount Abu and Abu Road in Sirohi, fearing landslides triggered by rain, a senior traffic official said. Only medical emergency vehicles were allowed to pass, the official said. Tourists have been advised to stay on the hill station till rains abate, he said.Two colonies – Indian Oil’s residential area and Gurunanak Colony in Abu Road – are inundated. People were evacuated from the colonies to safer places, he said, adding that a team of National Disaster Relief Force (NDRF) was called from Udaipur to assist the civil and police administration. Also Read – Health remains key challenge in India’s development: KovindThough there was a unit of Army and CRPF stationed in Mount Abu but they could not be called in due to due to blockade on roads, he said.Rain abated in Sanchore and Jalore cities and water level in low-lying areas has started receding, he said. Two gates of Selwara dam were opened to control the overflowing rain water, and one gate was being repaired.The district collectors and SPs of Sirohi and Jalore were camping in the rain-affected areas to supervise the rescue operation with the help of Calamity and Relief Department. Seven trains running on the SamdariBhilwari route were cancelled again on Wednesday, while one train (Dadar-Bikaner) has been diverted,  following damages to rail tracks due to incessant rain at Jalore-Sirohi route, North-West Railways (NWR) chief public relation officer Tarun Jain said.last_img read more

8th Theatre Olympics Upcoming Plays

first_imgThe nation-wide theatre extravaganza which started off at the majestic Red Fort on February 17, is now in its last phase, which makes these last few weeks extremely important for theatre aficionados to grab the tickets and watch some unique drama by national and international groups. Online tickets for this phase of the 8th Theatre Olympics are either available on or on the official website of the festival. Offline tickets could be bought two hours prior at the respective venue or from National School of Drama, New Delhi’s premises from 10 am every day. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfCOURT MARTIAL Wri. Swadesh Deepak Dir.: Jyotish M.G. Group: Abhinya Theatre Research Centre, KeralaLanguage: MalayalamDuration: 1 hr 20 min.Time: 5:30 pmLocation: Shri ram CentreRUDDHASANGEET Writer and Dir: Bratya BasuGroup: Kalindi Bratyajon, KolkataLanguage: BengaliDuration: 2 hrs. 30 min.Time: 6:30 pmLocation: KamaniKINUKAHARERTHETARWri.: Manoj MishraDir: KaziToufikul Islam Emon Group: Prachyanat, BangladeshLanguage: BengaliDuration: 1 hr 30 mins.Time: 8:30 pmLocation: Abhimanchlast_img read more